Visa for Starting a Business in France
Monday 05 June 2023
What are the visa requirements and process for those who wish to start a business in France? UPDATED 15th June 2023.
The visa normally issued on relocation to France is a carte de sejour ‘visiteur', which grants no right to run a business. Indeed, the visa specifically states that no professional activity can be undertaken. Certain visas do grant such a right, such as the permit 'regroupement familial'.
To start a business in France requires either that you:
- Apply for a business visa at the time you relocate, or that;
- You obtain access to France on a visitor visa, and later make application to change your visa status.
Prior to relocation the application is made on-line at France Visas and after relocation to your local prefecture.
The visa required is called a carte de séjour temporaire 'entrepreneur/profession libérale'. The cost is €225.
Alternatively, it is possible to apply for a 'talent' visa, valid for 4 years, on condition of holding at least a Masters degree, or experience of at least 5 years at a comparable level, attest to a serious and business project which is viable, and certified as such by the French authorities, and invest at least €30,000 in the project. The viability of the project is assessed via Passeport-talent-mention-creation-entreprise.
Such visas are necessary whatever type of business activity you are proposing to undertake. It does not include salaried activity, for which there is a different visa.
In terms of remote working in France, we considered the issue in our article Remote Working in France on a Visitor Visa.
If you are a detached worker from the EEA or UK, you may be eligible for exemption from the French social security system, via an A1 certificate of exemption.
Many who seek to relocate to France plan to run a gite (meuble de tourisme) or a chambre d'hote. We set out the visa requirements and process for such applicants in our news article Visas for Running a Gite.
UK expats who have a Brexit Withdrawal Agreement visa (WARP) have no need to apply for a business visa, as they are automatically entitled to start a a business in France.
The authorities do not make the process of obtaining a business visa particularly easy, as applicants need to produce a business plan and a substantial amount of documentation.
The problem for most expats planning to start a business in France is that it may be difficult to produce a business plan. Having the skills or experience or the money to invest is of no consequence without a market for your products or services.
Unless, therefore, you are buying an existing business in France, or you can continue to run an on-line business you already operate in your home country, where it is then possible to demonstrate that it is economically viable, such a proposition is unlikely to be suitable for most expats.
Accordingly, one alternative is to apply for a standard ‘visiteur’ visa in the first instance, and when you are in France and clearer about the business and its prospects, to make application to change it for a business visa (changement de statut). You can do so approximately two/three months before the expiration of your existing visa. This approach is to be recommended if you are not certain that you will start the business in your first year.
Since 2022, prior to making application for a visa you need to submit your business plan for approval. The application must be submitted to 'DREETS' (Directions régionales de l’économie, de l’emploi, du travail et des solidarités), which is part of the prefecture network at a regional level.
You need to submit your plan (and qualifications if necessary) for appraisal at Je sollicite un avis sur mon projet CST entrepreneur/profession libérale.
Article 313-10 of the Code de l'entrée et du séjour des étrangers, requires that the applicant must justify the exercise of an activity 'economically viable and from which s/he derives a sufficient means of existence'.
That rule applies whether it is a new business or the acquisition of an existing business.
In the latter case the applicant must provide proof of its effectiveness and the ability of the activity to provide them with resources at least equivalent to the minimum wage.
Although there is no specific language test that is required, if the business is reliant on the French market then the authorities will wish to take into consideration the language ability of the applicant as this will affect their ability to generate sales.
The law states: 'the presentation of a financial forecast is not sufficient and it is up to the applicant to provide specific and detailed information on the project including the business strategy.' A template for a business plan can be found at Construire son projet - Modèle de dossier.
Where the applicant is purchasing an existing business, the authorities will wish to examine the past performance under the former owner, as well as the capacity of the new owner to run the business, eg experience, qualifications.
In terms of financial performance, the law states that the applicant must be able to demonstrate that the income from the business should generate at less the minimum working wage. The capacity of the applicant to grow the business (market assessment and experience qualifications) will be considered.
In practice, the authorities take into consideration that a new business will take time to grow and that it may not be able to achieve the minimum wage from the outset.
It will assist that assessment if the applicant has other secure income on which they can rely, although it will not be determinant; the business has to work in its own right.
If they approve it they will send a certificate: “Avis de la DREETS attestant du caractère réel et sérieux d’un projet de création d’entreprise”, stating: "la DREETS atteste du caractère réel et sérieux du projet de création de l’entreprise.”
The evidence does suggest that this new procedure can speed up the decision-making process on the visa application.
Whether you make application for the business visa prior to relocating to France or subsequently, the requirements of the authorities will be the same.
A visa application submitted as a resident in France is considered by the local prefecture, whilst if you are not resident it is the local consulate in your home country who make the decision.
The initial business visa is only valid for one year, which means that you will need to go through a similar process at the end of the year to obtain a renewal of the visa, albeit the second time around you will have a track record. The validity period of the new visa will normally be 5 years.
The interminable list of information required by the authorities is enough to discourage anyone from wanting to invest in a business in France.
That is perhaps why there are only a few hundred business visas that are granted each year, against over 200,000 visas of other types. Many applicants considering setting up a business find it easier instead to obtain salaried employment, but these are mainly Francophones who have a good working understanding of the French language.
Nevertheless, obtaining salaried work is far less easy for UK nationals so if you want to start a business in France there is no escaping the process.
The requirement applies even though you may be proposing to undertake the business activity on a part-time basis.
The right to run a business is also dependent on having the requisite qualifications or experience. This applies not merely to professional categories such as doctors and architects, but also to tradesman (artisans) who are required to have a relevant qualification or at least three years’ experience. The list of regulated activities is quite substantial.
There is no requirement that the business owner undertakes the activity as a registered company, as the micro-entreprise status is equally acceptable. Indeed, it is probably easier to apply using micro status in the first instance; you can change your legal status (incorporation) once in France.
All British nationals who were resident in France prior to Jan 2021 are entitled to a Brexit WARP visa, which grants an automatic right to undertake a business activity, subject to business registration.
Once in France, you will be obliged to sign up to a 'Contrat d'Integration Republican' requiring civics and language courses. The course is also a requirement for those seeking permanent residence. You will be offered French lessons if you need them. However, as we indicate in an article in France Insider, there is mixed enforcement of this obligation. You can read more at French Residence Language Test.
We offer a comprehensive visa application service, which you can find at Visa Application.
- Business in France News
- Guide to Micro-Entrepreneur Business in France.
- Moving to France after Brexit
- Brexit and Residence Rights in France
- Brexit and Long-Term Residents of France
- Visas for Non-Europeans
- Travel to France after Brexit
- Brexit - Rights of Residence of Non-European of EU Citizens
- Brexit and the Right of Onward Movement
- Brexit - Importing a Vehicle to France
- Brexit - Tax Representative on Property Sales