9. Local Property Taxes in France
If you own a property in France the local property rates payable comprises two different taxes, called the taxe d’habitation and the taxe foncière. There is also a waste collection tax.
Local authorities also charge rates on business premises, called the Contribution Economique Territoriale (CET). Even if you run the business from your from home you will still be liable for these rates, although there are certain exemptions and other concessions. Our guide to French business rates can be found at Contribution Economique Territoriale (CET).
9.2. Taxe Foncière - Property Ownership Tax
This tax is an annual property ownership tax imposed on the owner, whether or not the property is actually occupied by them or rented out.
The tax has historically gone towards the funding of local services by the commune, inter-communal and departmental councils. However, since 2021 the proceeds of the tax from property other than land now all goes to the local municipal councils, to the exclusion of the departments.
The tax has wide application to all types of property whether residential, commercial, industrial or professional.
Land is also subject to the tax, though to a lesser extent, and there are also exemptions for buildings of an agricultural nature. There is also relief for the planting of new woodland.
The tax is levied for the year in which it is imposed and payable by the person(s) owning the property on 1st January of that year.
9.2.1. Calculation of the Tax
The determination of the amount payable is made by the local councils, but the calculation and collection of the tax is carried out by the central government tax authority.
The basis on which the tax determined is similar to that of the tax d’habitation, although in a more straightforward manner.
Broadly speaking, the basis of the assessment is the notional rent that the property might be expected to achieve in the open market, having regard to the size condition and location of the property. This is called the valeur locative cadastrale of the property.
Each year the government will adjust the local value upwards, called the coefficient de revalorisation.
This assessment is then discounted by 50% to take account of running costs, eg repairs, insurance.
This notional rent may not bear any relation to any actual rent that may be being paid on the property as the notional rental values date from 1970.
However, this is gradually changing, as each year several tens of thousands of properties are been revalued, sometimes resulting in very substantial tax increase for the owner.
The valeur locative brute of the property should be stated on the rear of the tax demand, and if you wish to query it you will need to visit your local Centre des Impôts Fonciers (Service de Cadastre), whose contact details are also given on the tax notice.
A percentage rate is then applied to this notional rent based on the income the authorities need to raise, called the taux d'imposition.
Example: Assume the notional rental value (valeur locative brute) of a property is €5,838, this figure is reduce by 50% to arrive at €2,919 as the basse nette d'imposition. The local percentage rate for the local council (taux d'imposition) is 37.94%, which gives a tax of €1,107. The same calculation is carried out for the department, where the taux d'imposition is normally lower. The two totals give the resulting rates payable.
The rate of tax varies marginally according to whether the property is the main home or a second home. In the case of the latter the rate for management costs is higher (3% rather than 1%).
Up to 2020 homes with a particularly high rateable value as well as second homes had an additional levy applied against them, called prélèvements pour base élevée et sur les maison secondaires but since 2021 this levy has been abolished.
There is no automatic abatement of the tax for children, as is the case for the taxe d'habitation.
If you are buying a property the tax payable may be shown on the property particulars. If not, ask the seller or agent for a copy of the most recent tax demand, called avis d’imposition.
However, be careful how you interpret the net figure payable, as the gross amount may have been reduced due to the income or other circumstances of the current owner.
If in doubt the Centre des Impôts Fonciers should be able to advise you of the gross amount, but the figure should also be on the tax demand.
Most local councils also make a separate charge for refuse collection, in a tax called taxe d’enlèvement des ordures ménagères (TEOM), which is sent out with the taxe foncière.
The basis for the calculation of the tax is generally the same as that for the taxe foncière, that is to say the rateable value of the property.
In some cases, councils charge on the basis of the number of persons in the household, in which case the tax is called Redevance d’Enlèvement des Ordures Ménagères (REOM).
Where the tax is not levied, the costs of refuse collection are funded from the general budget.
Finally, in an increasing number of communes the council imposes another supplementary element to the tax called GEMAPI - Gestion des milieux aquatiques et prévention des inondations - which, as it states, is levied in those areas where the council considers it necessary to undertake flood control measures. The tax is generally controlled by the local inter-communal council. The tax cannot be higher than €40 per household. In the Ile-de-France there is also the Taxe additionnelle spéciale annuelle (TASA).
We published an article on these additional taxes at Taxe Foncière and Supplementary Levies.
The level of the taxe foncière is generally higher in towns than in the countryside and also as between different regions of the country. The amount payable each year varies so much between local tax authorities and different properties that it would be pointless to state an average.
You can read about the average amounts payable in each department of France in 2020 in our article Taxe Foncière 2020. More recent figures are not yet available.
In the event you sell a property during the year you are obliged to pay the tax for the full year, although it is not unusual for there to be an agreement with the new owner concerning sharing of the tax, which needs to be incorporated in the sale and purchase agreement.
If you carry out major improvements to the property you are obliged to notify your local property tax office in order that there can be a revaluation of the property. Likewise with a new construction.
The relevant forms can usually be obtained from the local mairie or contact your tax office responsible for local property taxes, called the Centre des impôts fonciers within 90 days of practical completion. For new houses you should use Form H1, whilst for major improvements to an existing property you should use Form IL6704.
9.2.2. Exempted Properties
I. New Buildings
New buildings, additions to existing buildings, and rural conversions are granted full exemption from the tax for two years, provided the works are declared to the tax authority within 90 days of practical completion. Buildings of a non-domestic nature are only granted partial relief.
The law states:
I.-Les constructions nouvelles, reconstructions et additions de construction à usage d'habitation sont exonérées de la taxe foncière sur les propriétés bâties durant les deux années qui suivent celle de leur achèvement.
La commune peut, par une délibération prise dans les conditions prévues à l'article 1639 A bis et pour la part qui lui revient, limiter l'exonération prévue au premier alinéa du présent I à 40 %, 50 %, 60 %, 70 %, 80 % ou 90 % de la base imposable.
LOI n° 2019-1479 du 28 décembre 2019
The relief of that part of the tax imposed by the commune is subject to no contrary decision by the commune or inter-communal body to impose the tax. The local council can decide to limit the exemption to between 40% and 90%.
II. Energy Works
There is also between 50% and 100% exemption, for up to 5 years, for existing older homes and new homes built since 2009 constructed to an energy efficiency standard that is higher than the regulations currently in force. The maximum period of exemption only applies to those homes where a high level of energy efficiency has been achieved. This exemption is at the discretion of the local authorities. You would need to make enquiries at your local tax office.
This exemption for older property only applies to those dwellings built before 1989, and also on condition that the expenditure (excluding labour costs) in the previous year on such works exceeds €10,000, or €15,000 over the previous three years.
The exemption is at the rate of 50% to 100% for a period of up to five years.
Once again you would need to discuss with your local tax office.
You can read more about these tax exemptions and other forms of assistance for energy conservation works at Financial Assistance for Home Energy Conservation in France.
If you are a landlord and you are having difficulty in letting a property, or you are carrying out major works that makes it unsuitable for letting, then you can also obtain relief from payment of the tax.
The property must be incapable of occupation or otherwise vacant for at least three months despite your best efforts get it occupied. Proof of works, or attempts to let, must be supplied.
If the rent you are seeking is considered excessive you may not be granted relief
9.2.3. Tax Relief
There is an exemption from the tax for certain persons.
The following groups are granted relief from the tax:
- Persons over 75 years of age on 1st January in the year of imposition, provided their income in the previous year did not exceed the eligible threshold (see below);
- Registered disabled persons irrespective of age in receipt of l'allocation aux adultes handicapés (AAH);
- Persons in receipt of l'allocation de solidarité aux personnes âgées (ASPA), or the l'allocation supplémentaire d'invalidité (ASI);
For married couples, the age or disability condition may be met by only one of the spouses.
Since Jan 2023 the relief is granted whether the person lives alone or with another family member in the property, irrespective of the income of that family member.
Similarly, since Jan 2023, an elderly person who is moved into a retirement home/long-term care retains the benefit of any reduction or exemption on their principal residence, irrespective if a family member continues to live in the property.
If you are disabled, but do not receive the AAH, you should discuss your circumstances with your local tax office to establish whether you might be granted exemption. We have found the rules are not interpreted in a consistent manner.
Persons over 65 years of age on 1st January in the year of imposition, and less than 75 years, are entitled to a reduction of (at least) €100 in the amount payable, provided they meet the test of resources.
In relation to the income tests, assessment to entitlement your your income is considered to be your revenu fiscal de référence as stated on your tax notice for the previous year. This figure is, of course, always lower than that of your actual gross income.
The applicable income limits for 2023 are based on your net income for 2022 (revenu fiscal de reference).
Table: Income Thresholds 2023
|Household Size||Income Thresholds|
|+€3,174 (each add half part)|
The exoneration does not apply to that part of the tax related to rubbish collection.
There is also discretion to the local councils to grant relief on payment of the tax to others on a low income, but this is not widely adopted because of the importance of the tax to the operation of the councils. The reduction would in any event only be payable if the rateable value of your property was no greater than 130% of the average in the commune. You should check the tax demand you receive to see whether your council had adopted any of the discretionary exemptions.
Separately from the above relief, for low income households there is also a cap that has been set on the amount of the tax, if the tax is greater than 50% of net income. This cap is only available for the main home, to those who are not liable for wealth tax. We do not imagine there are many who are likely to benefit from this concession!
The tax demand is sent out towards the end of the year with a specified end date for payment, unless you elect to choose to pay on a monthly or annual basis by direct debit. You can also pay it on-line, or by cheque.
The tax demand is sent out during the third quarter of the year with a specified end date for payment, unless you elect to choose to pay on a monthly or annual basis by direct debit.
The tax demand is called avis d’imposition tax foncière. The detail of the calculation will show you how much of the tax goes to the various councils and their changes to the rate.
With two local rates to pay in France it is well worth setting up a monthly direct debit with the tax office to spread the pain over the year.
There is no additional tax charge.
Indeed, if your bill is at least €300 then you are obliged to settle it on-line on the government website or pay an additional charge equivalent to 0.2% of the bill.
The tax demand for the taxe foncière is sent out in September, whilst the demand for the taxe d'habitation in October.
The former is payable in October and the latter in November.
The dates for second home owners are normally offset by a month from those of principal home owners, although not in all cases.
If you wish to set up a monthly payment (prélèvement mensuel) it is well worth considering.
You can do so either on-line, or via the direct debit centre for your department.
i. On-Line - Setting up an account on the government tax website is easy, although you cannot do so in your first tax year in France.
To do so you will need three elements:
- Numéro fiscal - A 13 figure number that you will find near the top of tax declaration form you will receive.
- Numéro de déclarant en ligne - A 7 figure number that you will again find on the first page of your tax declaration.
- Revenu fiscal de référence - This is found on the last page of your tax notice.
You will also need your bank account details.
When you have this information go to Mon Espace and set up an account, when you will need to choose a password and provide your e-mail address. Once sorted, you then go to the relevant page for payments and set it up.
ii. Direct Debit Centre - If you are having difficulties in using the internet contact your Centre Prélèvement Service.
The direct debits will be paid in 10 monthly payments each year commencing January, although the January payment is collected in February, when you will be debited for two months. In addition, if the amounts paid each month prove not to be sufficient to settle the bill, then you will also pay in subsequent months (Nov and Dec).
You will be advised of the direct debit dates.
Unless you cancel the direct debit it will apply for subsequent years.
iii. Tabac - You can also pay at an accredited 'tabac', but only up to €300 in cash or by bank card.
The list of accredited tabacs can be found at Paiement de proximité.
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